The responses gathered in the first round were then linked to ICF categories using established ICF linking rules [16,17]. Applying the delta statistic method, a general index of .90 [95% CI: .89 - .91] was obtained, indicating that 90% of agreements were not due to chance. Participants in the third round were asked to evaluate the same list of categories again, this time taking into account the feedback they were sent concerning the responses of the panel and their own previous responses. This validation study highlights the functioning-related issues that psychologists encounter in their work with individuals with schizophrenia and considers the extent to which these aspects are covered by the ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia. Complications during pregnancy or birth are linked to schizophrenia. Schizophrenia. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Consensus was achieved for 75.3% of the ICF categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS, and 100% of those in the Brief ICF-CS. The ICF as a whole includes more than 1400 categories and hence is not suited to application in everyday clinical practice. However, one of its categories (s110 Structure of brain) reached an agreement of 90% in the Delphi study (for more details, see S2 Table). Agreement of 75% or higher was reached for 75.3% of the categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia and for all the categories in the Brief version. Schizophrenia Bulletin Personal factors were defined as the particular background of an individual’s life and living situation (e.g., age) . Unfortunately there is no concrete evidence to point toward one simple cause. The expected completion time for each survey round was about 15 minutes. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.t001. Formal analysis, With the aim of avoiding language barriers and encouraging participation by experts from different world regions, the study was conducted in five languages (Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish). The goals of these interventions are manifold, with key targets being to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life, neurocognition, and family communication. While there is no known cause of schizophrenia, there are genetic, psychological, and social factors thought to play a role in the development of this chronic disorder. The categories for which there was agreement in the third round were compared with the categories included in both the Brief and Comprehensive ICF-CSs. © 2020 Remedy Health Media, LLC ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Jump to: Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml Accessed May 13, 2019. Its lifetime prevalence is estimated at between 0.3% and 0.7%. Schizophrenia Linked to Social Inequality. Conceptualization, Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly. They primarily worked in clinical practice (mean 46.3% of their time), followed by research (28.1%), teaching and training (16.9%), management (7.8%), and other tasks (0.9%). Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals. Yes This reflects the fact that schizophrenia has a major impact on everyday functioning in all these areas, and illustrates why the main long-term therapeutic goals in the psychological treatment of these individuals are not limited to specific symptoms, but rather focus on improving patients’ psychosocial functioning [32,33]. Psychological Causes of Schizophrenia. Investigation, hypoxia). The goal of the present study was to build on this by exploring content validity from the perspective of psychologists, another group of health professionals closely involved in the care of individuals with schizophrenia. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Of the 29 categories from this component that yielded consensus in the Delphi study, only one (i.e., e135 Products and technology for employment) is not included in the ICF-CS for schizophrenia. We'll do our best to fix them. %%EOF PLoS ONE 14(6): Remedy Health Media & PsyCom do not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Achieving these therapeutic goals requires a proper understanding of each patient’s functioning and health status. Negative emotional experiences; High “expressed” emotion; Rejection, Criticism and Anxious Over-involvement; Frequent experience of a highly emotional environment; Dopamine imbalance; post-traumatic stress disorder; great adversity for some; Biological causes of schizophrenia . 0000001036 00000 n 0000013015 00000 n Understanding what causes schizophrenia is becoming harder and harder. It affects almost all areas of the person’s life; family, employment, training, health, personal relationships… Schizophrenia Causes 1-History of schizophrenia In 1809, John Hassam described in Madness and Melancholy a form of dementia as follows: They […] Available at: https://now.uiowa.edu/2013/09/how-schizophrenia-affects-brain. Seventy-three of the 97 ICF categories that form the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for schizophrenia achieved consensus, and only three categories that yielded consensus do not feature in this Core Set. Given that an ICF-CS needs to be as short as possible, this domain may already be sufficiently covered by these four categories. Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more. Visualization, Methodology, NHS UK. The ICF provides just such a framework. PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place. Onset usually occurs during late adolescence and early adulthood, a time when young people are transitioning into independent roles as adults. It’s your single place to instantly A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. here. To subscribe to email alerts, please log in first, or sign up for a DeepDyve account if you don’t already have one. We conducted a three-round worldwide Delphi study by means of an e-mail survey. National Institute of Mental Health. Furthermore, experts did not need to have specific knowledge about the ICF, and they were selected without taking into account their therapeutic orientation or training background. This journal evolved into the following structure: description of personal pain body, moving forward with transformations, and … Taken together, these results suggest that the ICF-CSs for schizophrenia provide a clinically relevant framework for organizing information about this health condition. Data curation, The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) offers a theoretical framework for assessing functioning and disability. Psychological interventions also address other categories that were associated with high agreement, namely psychosocial functions (b122 Global psychosocial functions ), functions affected by negative symptoms (e.g., b130 Energy and drive functions and b152 Emotional functions [25,26]), and classical symptoms in schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations (e.g. Schizophrenia is caused primarily by genetic and environmental factors. No, Is the Subject Area "Global health" applicable to this article? Methodology, Importantly, improvement and decline in aspects of functioning can be displayed in a functioning profile over the course of treatment or over the life span. Stress and drug abuse are considered common triggers in people who are at risk, which may result in the onset of psychosis. Although psychiatrists highlighted the importance of many categories from chapter b1 Mental functions, they also emphasized other categories from the Body functions component, such as b530 Weight maintenance functions or b765 Involuntary movement functions. Sixteen categories that are included in the Activities and Participation component of the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia were initially referred to by many of our experts but did not reach the threshold for consensus. Expert psychologists from around the world were recruited by contacting international associations of psychologists, universities with health professional training programs, and hospitals. Schizophrenia is thought to be the result of a culmination of biological and environmental factors. Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health therapies" applicable to this article?
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